New publications
Published: 3. 7. 2009

Nové číslo Sociologického časopisu/Czech Sociological Review 2/2009

Sociologický časopis je recenzovaný vědecký časopis publikující původní příspěvky k poznání společnosti od českých i zahraničních autorů. Vychází od roku 1965.

Obsah čísla

Ondřej Císař: Editorial [239]

Marek Skovajsa: Poslední slovo úvodem [240]

Ze sociologických výzkumůHynek Jeřábek: Rodinná péče o seniory jako „práce z lásky“: nové argumenty [243]

Abstract: This paper is based on a survey among 435 Czech households caring for a dependent senior in the family to inquire into the conditions and circumstances of caring for seniors in the family. The concept of ‘care as a labour of love’ (Graham) is contrasted with the concept of the ‘defamilisation of care’ (Glenn) and ‘social rights for elderly care’ (Fine). The author finds that more demanding family care, measured as the level of IADL or BADL, is reflected in a growing number of hours spent on family care. The author shows the significant differences in the psychological and financial burden experienced by primary caregivers in relation to how demanding the level of care required is. The article presents evidence of the existence of ‘collective family care’ in situations where demanding personal care for a senior is required. The participation of other family members in providing care for a senior in situations of demanding personal care demonstrates some features of family cohesion.

Lenka Slepičková, Petr Fučík: Sociální kontext postojů k řešení neplodnosti [267]

Abstract: Infertility is a problem that affects around 15% of Czech couples of reproductive age. Using data from the survey ‘Marriage, Work, Family’ the objective of this analysis is to identify the attitudes that Czech men and women maintain towards various strategies for overcoming infertility (adoption, different forms of assisted reproduction) and the factors that infl uence and shape these attitudes. The first part of the analysis looks for the determinants behind attitudes towards adoption and assisted reproduction in the respondent’s external characteristics. For example, education and religion were found to have a signifi cant influence. More educated respondents are more open to methods of assisted reproduction; religious respondents are more open to adoption. In terms of inner determinants (the respondent’s attitude patterns) the authors, building on the preference theory proposed by Catherine Hakim, found a preference effect among women. The findings are seemingly paradoxical: of three groups of women (work-centred, home-centred, and adaptive) it is work-centred women (and the partners of work-centred women) who are most likely to take various infertility strategies into consideration. The third part of the analysis – an analysis of the external determinants of attitudes towards infertility strategies – revealed that in some cases attitudes are influenced by the characteristics of the partner more than by the respondent’s own characteristics – in particular, the woman’s attitudes are shaped more by the characteristics of her partner than by her own characteristics.

Natalie Simonová: Proměny v mezigeneračním přenosu dosaženého vzdělání v České republice v historické perspektivě [291]

Abstract: The aim of this article is to explain educational reproduction in the Czech Lands between 1906 and 2003 from the perspective of educational mobility. Mobility trends in the intergenerational transmission of educational status identified in an analysis are presented in the context of findings on odds ratios in education and in a historical context. The analysis is based on observations of the intergenerational transmission of educational status, i.e. educational mobility, in two educational transitions between three educational levels (lower secondary, upper secondary, and higher education). Mobility tables and their log-linear analysis are used to help explain what mobility processes shape the educational inequalities that have proved stable over the long term and also odds ratios between the main levels of education. The article helps fill in the gap in knowledge about the long-term development of the educational structure in the historical Czech Lands and Czechoslovakia and provides information about typical mobility trajectories and varying mobility patterns in periods before 1948, between 1948 and 1989, and after 1989. An understanding of these structural contexts helps clarify what occurred in the past and what is occurring now in the area of unequal access to education and to explain one of the main findings from the analysis – that in Czech society the transmission of a family’s educational status from one generation to the next continuously follows the same patterns.

Martina Mikeszová, Martin Lux, Anne Morisseau: Potenciální finanční nedostupnost nájemního bydlení po deregulaci nájemného – regionální perspektiva [315]

Abstract: The article deals with an analysis of regional differences in rental housing affordability following rent deregulation in the Czech Republic. The objective is to identify the types of households potentially at risk of being unable to afford housing, to map the development of potential housing (un)affordability since 2000, and to trace the development of regional differences in the percentage of at-risk households in the Czech Republic. Owing to the absence of useful aggregate data on incomes and expenditures for different household types in the regions of the Czech Republic, the authors created their own simulation methodology for measuring housing affordability, which uses available regional wage statistics and data on market rents. The results indicate that the general risk of being unable to afford rental housing and regional differences in housing affordability are both decreasing, but there is still a relatively large group of households that under current wage conditions for paying social benefits would be unable to afford to pay market rents.

Mezioborové inspirace

Martin Kanovský: Esencializmus a etnicita: sociálno-kognitívne vysvetlenie reprezentovania sociálnych skupín [345]

Abstract: The aim of this article is to explore the various ways in which people represent social groups. The author shows that a prominent role in such processes is played by psychological essentialism. People represent some of their social identities as inherent qualities that are based on the sharing of a presumed ‚essence‘: something unobservable, diffi cult to remove, irreversible, and causally responsible for overt behaviours. Empirical evidence suggests that no particular causal process of essence acquisition is constitutive for essentialism in folk models of society. Some authors believe that folk essentialism is necessarily connected with the presumed innateness of an essence (its
biological transmission across generations). Innate potential and biological inheritance, however powerful they may be for the human cognitive mind in the domain of folk models for biology, are far from necessary in essentialist folksociological classifications. Essentialism in folk sociology is not defi ned by any particular causal process of essence acquisition. Even when it is possible to detect that a given group of people claim the innate essence of a particular folk sociology, it is always necessary to look for other features of essentialism (inherence, sharp boundaries, the immutability of identity, etc.). The article reviews some infl uential cognitive proposals concerning folk models of society (Astuti, Gil-White, Hirschfeld) and ethnicity, and provides arguments and empirical evidence collected in Western Ukraine in support of the claim that presumed innateness is not the constitutive part of folk models of society, let alone of psychological essentialism.

Pavel Horák, Markéta Horáková: Role liniových pracovníků ve veřejné politice [369]

Abstract: This article puts forward the concept of street-level bureaucrats
and their role in public policy in its full complexity. In the first two parts the authors define street-level bureaucrats and the roots of the basic ideologies that determine their behaviour (principles of bureaucracy, professionalism, bureau-professionalism and managerialism). They draw on previous analytical studies they conducted on this theme and present the latest empirical fi ndings on the behavior of street-level bureaucrats who work with unemployed people. In this way they try to demonstrate the importance of principles of bureaucracy, professionalism, and bureau-professionalism in contemporary public policy.

Metodologická rubrika

Jiří Vinopal: Situace standardizovaného dotazování z hlediska kognitivních přístupů [397]

Abstract: The article focuses on an analysis of the situation in which information is obtained from respondents in questionnaire surveys. From the perspective of the cognitive aspects of survey methodology the article takes a complex view of this situation and applies theoretical concepts and empirical evidence in order to explain the close connection between the interview situation and the quality of the information obtained. The interview situation is portrayed in its twofold form: personal aspects (the mental operations of respondents)
and social aspects (the interaction and communication between the interviewer and the respondent). The analysis of the interactive aspects of the interview situation draws attention to the rules of standard communication, which interfere with the ordinary concept of the standardised interview and the course of mental processes. The cognitive aspect of responding to questions is analysed from the perspective of the wider understanding of context effects, the author
refers to the most important theoretical concepts relating to individual effects and empirical evidence of some effects that influence the response process. The article takes a somewhat untypical approach to some aspects of data collection in questionnaire surveys and into the Czech context introduces the cognitive aspects of the methodology of questionnaire surveys.

NEKROLOG

Libor Prudký: Poslední setkání se Zdeňkem Strmiskou [421]

Zdeněk Strmiska: Vlastní životopis z července 1989 [422]

Miloslav Petrusek: Zdeněk Strmiska – můj učitel a přítel blízký i vzdálený [423]

Georges Mink: Zdeněk Strmiska ve Francii [426]

Výběr z bibliografie Zdeňka Strmisky [428]

Miroslav Paulíček: Vladimír Borecký, pozorný poutník světem komiky [431]

Recenze

Jiří Šubrt: Richard Jung: Experience and Action: Selected Items in Systems Theory [435]

Miloslav Petrusek: Joanna Derdowska: Praskie przemiany: Sacrum i desakralizacja przestrzeni miejskiej Pragi [438]

Daniel Kunštát: Adéla Gjuričová, Michal Kopeček (eds.): Kapitoly z dějin české demokracie po roce 1989 [440]

Karel Černý: Jiří Tomeš, David Festa, Josef Novotný et al.: Konflikt světů a svět konfliktů. Střety idejí a zájmů v současném světě [444]

Čeněk Kras: Václav Bělohradský: Společnost nevolnosti – eseje z pozdější doby [448]

Zdeněk R. Nešpor: Robert Wuthnow: After the Baby Boomers. How Twenty- and Thirty-somethings Are Shaping the Future of American Religion [451]

Dan Ryšavý: Henry Bäck, Hubert Heinelt, Annick Magnier (eds.): The European Mayor. Political Leaders in the Changing Context of Local Democracy [454]

Pavel Nejdl: Mark E. Warren, Hilary Pearse (eds.): Designing Deliberative Democracy: The British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly [458]

Markéta Žampachová: Roger Ingham, Peter Aggleton (eds.): Promoting Young People’s Sexual Health. International Perspectives Roger Ingham, Peter Aggleton (eds.): Promoting Young People’s Sexual Health. International Perspectives [462]

Zprávy

Michal Illner: Konference Masarykovy české sociologické společnosti 2009 [467]

Marek Skovajsa: Workshop Deliberativní metody ve výzkumu místních společenství [468]

Radka Taucová: Berlínská konference k otevřenému přístupu k vědeckým publikacím [470]

Olga Vidláková: Konference o etice ve veřejné správě [472]

Petr Soukup: Conference Cyberspace 2008 [474]

Marek Jakoubek: Konference a setkání Gypsy Lore Society [475]

Eva Mitchell: Zpráva z mezinárodní letní školy New Risks and New Governance in Europe [478]

Jiří Šafr, Julia Häuberer: Unsichere Zeiten – 34. kongres Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie [480]

Prodej a objednávky zajišťuje:

Tiskové a ediční oddělení Sociologického ústavu AV ČR, v.v.i.
Jilská 1,110 00 Praha 1
telefon: 222 221 761, 221 183 217-8.
e-mail: monika.kuzelova@soc.cas.cz

Prodejní doba:

Po-Pá 8:30 - 16:30

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