Article with impact factor
Katrňák, Tomáš, Natalie Simonová, Laura Fónadová. 2016. „From Quantitative to Qualitative Differences: Testing MMI and EMI in the Czech Secondary School System in the First Decade of the 21st Century.“ Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 46 (Part B): 157–171. ISSN 0276-5624.

This article examines secondary education in the Czech Republic between 2000 and 2010. We analyzed the consequences of educational expansion on odds to achieve secondary education with a school-leaving certificate (SLC) by social origin. We utilize the theories of maximally maintained inequality – MMI (Raftery & Hout, 1993) and effectively maintained inequality – EMI (Lucas, 2001). We analyzed data from PISA 2000 to 2009 for the Czech Republic. We support EMI theory against MMI. Quantitative (vertical) differentiation by social origin decreased between 2000 and 2009. Contrary to MMI assumptions, the odds of achieving a school-leaving certificate (SLC) are increasing for children from the lower social classes, but only in a less academic type of secondary education. According to EMI assumptions, this increase occurs because qualitative (horizontal) diversification of schools with a SLC has been rising. Socioeconomic variables have a stronger effect on attendance in more academic schools (i.e. grammar schools with a SLC).


social inequalities
sociologická teorie
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