The article reviews cultural and structural explanations of low fertility in Central and Eastern Europe. Then it answers the following questions: What factors have influenced decisions on (not) entering parenthood in the Czech Republic? Has the importance of any factor increased in the post-socialist period? Why have young childless 25-35 years old Czechs not entered into parenthood(yet)? Do they reject parenthood, postpone parenting or have no childbearing plans (yet)?