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Klímová Chaloupková, Jana, Pospíšilová, Kristýna. 2024. „Research note: Gender and educational differences in childcare time: Evidence from the Czech Republic .“ Journal of Family Research 36: 126–137. Available from:

This study explores the gender and educational differences in the time spent on childcare in the Czech Republic. In particular, we ask how gender and educational gradients in parenting time intersect and whether they vary by the child’s age. We consider the time parents spend in basic, interactive and focused childcare care as a way to address the intensive parenting model. Prior research has documented an increase in parental time investment in childcare associated with changes in gender roles and the spread of norms of intensive parenting. However, it remains unclear whether educational and gender differences in parenting time are converging because of these changes and how they vary by the child’s age. Using time-use data from the Czech Household Study Panel Study—a nationally representative sample from the Czech Republic (2015)—we applied mixed regression models to analyse time spent on three types of childcare activities. The results indicate that highly educated parents allocate more time to basic and focused care, reflecting a commitment to intensive child-centred parenting. In addition, higher-educated fathers of preschoolers engage more in interactive care. Although gender disparities persist among higher-educated parents, the gap narrows for parents with children older than three years. The findings underscore the importance of analysing parenting time across different activities and child ages to understand family dynamics and child opportunities.

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